ISSN: 1648 - 4460

International Journal of Scholarly Papers


Transformations  in
Business & Economics

Transformations in
Business & Economics

  • © Vilnius University, 2002-2005
  • © Brno University of Technology, 2002-2005
  • © University of Latvia, 2002-2005
Notes for Contributors

Transformations in Business & Economics is a biannual journal of scholarly papers addressing issues in business, economics, market environment and its development (Social Sciences, Development Economics, S 188).

The issue dates of the publication are 25th May and 25th November. The language of publication is English with summaries translated into Lithuanian.


This publication is structured in the following way, where the main scope of printing space is dedicated to scientific articles, accepted from all world round. The other part is devoted to reviews of scientific achievements, as well as promotion of forth-coming scientific events at Vilnius University and partner-universities.

Thus, the contents of Transformations in Business & Economics consists of:

  • scientific articles,
  • book reviews,
  • reviews on successfully defended PhD dissertations and habilitation theses,
  • reviews on national and international conferences and seminars,
  • advertising and promoting forth-coming scientific events: international conferences, seminars and scientific trade-fairs.

A copy of the scientific article should be forwarded by the following e-mail address: . Scientific articles should be submitted in one hard copy. ONLY in case of e-mail connection failure at the given address:

Scholarly papers Transformations in Business & Economics
Kaunas Faculty of Humanities
Vilnius University
Muitinės g. 8
Kaunas, LT-44280

The authors of the manuscripts are expected to conform to the format and documentation requirements that are given below. The dates of submission, revision and acceptance for publication of the paper are indicated by the editors at the beginning of the manuscript.

The reviewing process

All scientific articles submitted for publication in Transformations in Business & Economics are double-blind reviewed by at least two academics appointed by the Editors’ Board: one from the Editorial Board and one independent scientist of the language of origin – English. Reviewers stay anonymous.

Manuscript requirements

As a guide, articles should be between 6,000 and 10,000 words in length (16 - 20 A4 size pages). In case the paper exceeds the normal length, the Editors' consent for its publication is needed. Articles submitted for publication in Transformations in Business & Economics should include the research aim and tasks, with detailed methodology, presenting literature overview on the research object, substantiation of the achieved results and findings, conclusions and a list of references. Manuscripts should be arranged in the following order of presentation.

First page:
Title, subtitle (if any), autobiographical note (the author’s full name, academic affiliation, telephone, fax and e-mail address and full international contact). Respective affiliations and addresses of co-authors should be clearly indicated. Please also include approximately 50 words of biographical information on each author of the submitted paper.
Second page:
(a) A self-contained abstract of up to 150 words, describing the research objective and its conclusions;
(b) up to five keywords, which encapsulate the principal subjects covered by the article;
(c) JEL classification, indexing all keywords according to the JEL classification system (please, refer to; and
(d) a self-contained summary of up to 200 words, describing the article and its conclusions, suitable for translating into the Lithuanian language.
Subsequent pages:
Main body of the text with headings, footnotes, a list of references, appendices, tables, illustrations.

Technical presentation

Main body of the text should be printed in Times New Roman, 12pt with single line spacing. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. Headings must be short, clearly defined and numbered, except for Introduction and Conclusions. All tables, graphs, and diagrams are expected to back up your research findings. They should be clearly referred to and numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. They should be placed in the text at the appropriate paragraph (just after its reference). All figures must have captions. In all figures taken or adapted from other sources, a brief note to that effect is obligatory, below the figure.


Authors should also provide up to 5 keywords or descriptors that clearly describe the subject matter of the article. These terms have two purposes: firstly, to help describe the subject content of an article to prospective readers; and, secondly, to index the article for retrieval from a database or bibliography. Such keywords might include:

  • country, geographical area, e.g. Sweden, Central and Eastern European countries, developing countries;
  • industry, e.g. banking, retail industry, high-tech industry;
  • organisation, organisation-related, e.g. small and medium enterprises, multinational companies, corporate governance;
  • people, e.g. consultants, trainers, top management, economists;
  • broad functions, e.g. marketing, production management, human resources management, logistics;
  • specific functions, e.g. sales promotion, scheduling, advertising;
  • management and managerial activities, e.g. policy making, decision making, strategy planning;
  • economics, e.g. development economics, labour economics, environmental economics;
  • other processes and subject areas, e.g. industrial relations, quantitative methods, international research methods.

The ISI citations are a must for all contributors (please, refer to References to other publications must be in Harvard style. That is, shown within the text as the first author's name followed by a comma, year of publication and the quoted page number - all in round brackets, e.g. (Doyle, 1994, p.23). If there are more than one author, the following format is used: (McAdam et al, 2001, p.236). At the end of the article a reference list in alphabetical order must be given as follows:

  • For books: surname, initials, (year), title, place of publication, publisher. E.g. Ballou, R.H. (1992), Business Logistics Management. 3rd Edition. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall International Editions.
  • For journals: surname, initials, (year), "title", journal, volume, number, pages. E.g. Fox, S. (1994), "Empowerment as a Catalyst for Change: an Example from the Food Industry", Supply Chain Management, Vol. 2, No 3, pp. 29-33.
  • For Internet sources:
    • Small Business Marketing Strategies: Marketing Research // (referred on 30/09/2002).
    • Martin C.L. (1998), Relationship Marketing: a High-Involvement Product Attribute Approach, Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol. 7, No 1, pp. 6-26 // (referred on 03/10/2002).

Articles submitted to the journal should be authentic and original contributions and should have never been published before in full text, nor be under consideration for any other publication at the same time. Authors submitting articles for publication warrant that the work is not an infringement of any existing copyright and will indemnify the publisher against any breach of such warranty. For ease of dissemination and to ensure proper policing of use, papers and contributions become the legal copyright of the publisher unless otherwise agreed.


Authors are responsible for ensuring that all manuscripts (whether original or revised) are accurately typed before final submission. One set of proof will be sent to authors, if requested, before the final publication, which must be returned promptly. There are also possibilities to get proof reading services from the Managerial Office of Transformations in Business & Economics if requested.

Editorial correspondence:

Scholarly papers Transformations in Business & Economics
Kaunas Faculty
Vilnius University
Muitinės g. 8
Kaunas, LT-44280



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